SYMPTOMS & DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES MELLITUS

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Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 

Symptoms:

  • Increased thirst

  • Hunger and fatigue

  • Frequent and larger volume of urination

  • Sweating

  • Vomiting and nausea

  • Weight loss

  • Headaches and sleepiness

  • Blurred vision

  • Increase in heart rate

 

Diagnosis:

  • If fasting blood sugar is found greater than 126 mg/dL on two separate tests taken

  • If random blood sugar is found greater than 200 mg/dL

  • Detection of any of the symptoms of diabetes

  • If hemoglobin A1c > 6.5 on two separate tests taken

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 

Symptoms:

  • Oftentimes no symptoms appear

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Hunger and fatigue

  • Weight gain or loss

  • Blurred vision

  • Poor wound healing

 

Diagnosis:

  • Hemoglobin A1C test / Glycosylated hemoglobin test will measure the average blood glucose levels. No fasting is required for this test. This measurement will give data from up to three months past. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • 5.6% or less indicates that you are normal

    • 6.5% or above indicates that you have diabetes mellitus type 2

  • Oral glucose tolerance test is done to see how the body reacts before and after a drink with a dose of glucose is given. In this test, the blood is drawn thrice at set intervals before/ after the drink is taken. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • Blood sugar less than 140 mg/dL post second test indicates that you are normal

    • Blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or higher post second test indicates that you have diabetes mellitus type 2

  • Fasting plasma glucose test is taken after eight to nine hours of fasting and measures the quantity of glucose in the blood plasma. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • Blood sugar of 100 mg/dL or less indicates that you are normal

    • Blood sugar of 126 mg/dL or higher indicates that you have diabetes mellitus type 2.

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Prediabetes

Symptoms:

  • Excessive hunger

  • Increased thirst

  • Fatigue

  • Increased urination

  • Weight gain

  • Several people may not face any symptoms

 

Diagnosis:

  • Hemoglobin A1C test / Glycosylated hemoglobin test will measure the average blood glucose levels. No fasting is required for this test. This measurement will give data from up to three months past. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • 5.6% or less indicates that you are normal

    • 5.7% to 6.4% indicates that you are prediabetic

  • Oral glucose tolerance test is done to see how the body reacts before and after a drink with a dose of glucose is given. In this test, the blood is drawn thrice at set intervals before/ after the drink is taken. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • Blood sugar less than 140 mg/dL post second test indicates that you are normal

    • Blood sugar of 140 to 199 mg/dL post second test indicates that you are prediabetic

  • Fasting plasma glucose test is taken after fasting for 8 to 9 hours. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • Blood sugar of 100 mg/dL or less indicated that you are normal

    • Blood sugar of 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates that you are prediabetic

Gestational Diabetes

Symptoms:

  • Excessive hunger

  • Increased thirst

  • Fatigue

  • Fetal macrosomia

  • Frequent urination

 

Diagnosis:

  • Usually checked for between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy, or sooner if person is at higher risk.

  • Initial glucose challenge test is done by giving the person a syrupy glucose solution. One hour later, you'll have a blood test to measure your blood sugar level. The results can be analyzed as follows:

    • A blood sugar below 140 mg/dL indicates that you are normal

    • A blood sugar level of 190 mg/dL indicates gestational diabetes.

  • Follow-up glucose tolerance testing is similar to the initial test. The only difference is that the sweet solution given will have even more sugar and the blood sugar will be checked every hour for three hours. Results are analyzed in the same way as for the first test. If two out of the three readings of the blood sugar are higher than expected, it indicates gestational diabetes.

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